For almost 6,000 years, diamonds have been highly prized by artisans for their brilliance as ornaments of adoration, and equally prized for their use as the most valued tools in construction and art.  Because diamonds are one of the hardest known substances on Earth, and can disperse natural light into spectral brilliance, the availability of diamonds was highly restricted.

In the early 19th Century, the discovery of large diamond deposits and the continuous improvement in the cutting and polishing of diamonds vastly increased their popularity and desirability.  As most diamond mines are nationalized or controlled by conglomerates, the competition for control of the industry led to the current system of grading diamonds, a system known as the four Cs.  The four characteristics upon which a diamond is rated as a gemstone include color, cut, clarity, and carat.  While diamonds naturally occur in a range of colors in hues from blue to black and pink to purple, the vast majority of diamonds are typically colorless to hues of yellow, grey and brown.  Gem quality diamonds’ color is rated on an alphabetical scale ranging from D (white) to Y (yellow). “Z” diamonds are fancy, or deep-colored diamond.  The cut of a diamond is rated on how it maximizes the stone’s ability to reflect light, or its “fire”. A diamond’s clarity rates the size and number of its flaws and inclusions (such as black carbon flecks) from what can be seen with the naked eye to 10 times magnification.  Carat refers specifically to a diamond’s weight.


Gemstones are minerals that have become prized and valued according to their rarity, and specific characteristics for each stone such as its color(s), durability, ability to be cut into specific shapes, as well as other factors such as its ability to disperse light.  Diamonds, sapphires, emeralds and rubies have been classified as precious gemstones; all other minerals in this category are classified as semi-precious gemstones.  A few non-mineral organic materials such as coral, amber, and pearls have been designated as gemstones.

While gemologists have designated about 30 minerals as gemstones, the international designation of birthstones or gemstones associated with each month of the year has made the following gemstones among the most popular:

January: Garnet is a form of silicate that is most common in hues of red
january Garnet

February: Amethyst is a form of quartz that develops in hues of purple
february Amethyst

March: Aquamarine is a form of beryl named for its light sea-blue color
march Aquamarine

April: Diamond
april Diamond

May: Emerald is a form of beryl that is green
may Emerald

June: Pearl
june Pearl

July: Ruby is a form of corundum. Only diamonds are harder than rubies
july Ruby

August: Peridot is a clear yellow-light green olivine. Objects viewed through. Peridots appear to be double.
august Peridot

September: Sapphire is a form of hard corundum that is most common in hues of blue
september Sapphire

October: Opal is an opaque form of quartz whose inclusions reflect multiple colors
october Opal

November: Topaz is a hard, clear silicate that is desired in brown, orange, and light blue
november Topaz

December: Zircon, is the traditional stone for December; however, Tanzanite, a calcium-aluminum silicate, has  been added as an additional birthstone for the month of December
december Zircon

Natural Gemstones

Our precious and semi-precious gemstones are natural.  To achieve the designer’s artistic vision, gemstones may appear in their rough, natural state, be polished, be cut into shapes, be partially or fully faceted, or enhanced to improve their color and clarity.

Enhanced Gemstones

Gemstones are enhanced in laboratory conditions.  Heat and radiation is used to change the color and clarity of gemstones, while diffusion is used to deepen the color of gemstones.